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Applied Energy


In response to the oil crises of the 1970s, energy accounting experienced a revolution and became the much broader field of energy analysis, in part by expanding along the energy conversion chain from primary and final energy to useful energy and energy services, which satisfy human needs. After evolution and specialization, the field of energy analysis today addresses topics along the entire energy conversion chain, including energy conversion systems, energy resources, carbon emissions, and the role of energy services in promoting human well-being and development. And the expanded field would benefit from a common analysis framework that provides data structure uniformity and methodological consistency. Building upon recent advances in related fields, we propose a physical supply-use table energy analysis framework consisting of four matrices from which the input-output structure of an energy conversion chain can be determined and the effects of changes in final demand can be estimated. Real-world examples demonstrate the physical supply-use table framework via investigation of energy analysis questions for a United Kingdom energy conversion chain. The physical supply use table framework has two key methodological advances over the building blocks that precede it, namely extending a common energy analysis framework through to energy services and application of physical supply-use tables to both energy and exergy analysis. The methodological advances enable the following first-time contributions to the literature: (1) performing energy and exergy analyses on an energy conversion chain using physical supply-use table matrices comprised of disaggregated products in physical units when the last stage is any of final energy, useful energy, or energy services; (2) performing structural path analysis on an energy conversion chain; and (3) developing and utilizing a matrix approach to inhomogeneous units. The framework spans the entire energy conversion chain and is suitable for many sub-fields of energy analysis, including net energy analysis, societal energy analysis, human needs and well-being, and structural path analysis, all of which are explored in this paper.

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