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Clinical Archives of Communication Disorders


This study examined the effects of age and gender during three intra-oral lingual tasks (elevation, protrusion, and depression) on peak lingual pressure in healthy adults. Methods: Healthy adults were divided into groups based on age, young (18 to 35 years) and older (>60 years) adults, and gender. All the 49 participants completed maximum isometric pressure intraoral lingual tasks (elevation, protrusion, and depression) and peak anterior lingual pressures were recorded using the three-bulb tongue array of the Digital Swallowing WorkstationTM. Peak lingual strength was recorded as the average of peak lingual pressures of the three trials for each lingual task. A three-way ANOVA, where the independent variables were age, gender, and lingual task, was conducted to determine the effects on the dependent variable, peak lingual pressure. Results: Younger adults were found to exhibit significantly greater peak lingual pressure when compared to older healthy individuals, while no differences in peak lingual pressures were observed between men and women. Among the three intraoral lingual tasks, peak lingual pressures were highest during lingual depression and least during lingual protrusion. Conclusions: The effects of age, gender, and lingual task on peak anterior lingual pressure, and the applicability of such lingual tasks in lingual strengthening exercises are discussed.

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