Classical modeling of non-sequential double ionization: Recollision, time-delayed ionization, drift, and possible reattachment

Stanley L. Haan, Calvin University
Z. S. Smith, Calvin University
K. N. Shomsky, Calvin University
P. W. Plantinga, Calvin University


We employ 3d classical ensembles to study Non-Sequential Double Ionization (NSDI) of atoms by strong laser fields at visible and infrared wavelengths. We consider in particular the wavelength dependence of final electron drift directions and the net momentum spectra parallel to the laser polarization. We find that as the wavelength is increased the spectrum transitions from a singlet to a doublet, then to a triplet, and finally back to a doublet. We also show that electrons that escape the central potential-energy well during the pulse may nonetheless be bound to the nucleus after laser turnoff.