Document Type


Publication Title

Journal of Virology


Although combination therapy allows the suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viremia to undetectable levels, eradication has not been achieved because the virus persists in cellular reservoirs, particularly the latent reservoir in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes. We previously established a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model to study latency. We describe here a novel mechanism for the induction of SIV from latently infected resting CD4+ T cells. Several human cell lines including CEMx174 and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines mediated contact-dependent activation of resting macaque T cells and induction of latent SIV. Antibody-blocking assays showed that interactions between the costimulatory molecule CD2 and its ligand CD58 were involved, whereas soluble factors and interactions between T-cell receptors and major histocompatibility complex class II were not. Combinations of specific antibodies to CD2 also induced T-cell activation and virus induction in human resting CD4+ T cells carrying latent HIV-1. This is the first demonstration that costimulatory signals can induce latent virus without the coengagement of the T-cell receptor, and this study might provide insights into potential pathways to target latent HIV-1.

First Page


Last Page




Publication Date


Included in

Virology Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.