#### Document Type

Article

#### Publication Title

Topology and its Applications

#### Abstract

This paper contains several shrinking theorems for decompositions of 4-dimensional manifolds. Let f : M → X be a closed, cell-like mapping of a 4-manifold M onto a metric space X and let Y be a closed subset of X such that X - Y is a 4-manifold and Y is locally simply co-connected in X. The main result states that f can be approximated by homeomorphisms if Y is a 1-dimensional ANR. The techniques of the proof also show that f can be approximated by homeomorphisms in case Y is an arbitrary 0-dimensional closed subset. Combining the two results gives the same conclusion in case Y contains a closed, 0-dimensional subset C such that Y - C is a 1-dimensional ANR. The construction in the paper also gives a proof of a taming theorem for 1-dimensional ANRs.

#### First Page

3

#### Last Page

20

#### DOI

10.1016/s0166-8641(99)00177-7

#### Publication Date

1-1-2001

#### Recommended Citation

Bestvina, Mladen; Daverman, Robert J.; and Venema, Gerard A., "A 4-dimensional 1-LCC Shrinking Theorem" (2001). *University Faculty Publications and Creative Works*. 454.

https://digitalcommons.calvin.edu/calvin_facultypubs/454